Self punishment spanking
Administration for Children and Families. Self punishment spanking also find that, at age 1, African American children were verbally punished significantly more frequently than White and less acculturated Mexican American children, and that, at ages 2 and 3, African American children were verbally punished significantly more frequently than all other children. In the present study, we drew on ecological and transactional theories of child development to further the understanding of the controversial topic Self punishment spanking early parental discipline. Comparative acculturation of Southeast Asian and Hispanic immigrants and sojourners. Effects were modest to moderate in magnitude.